Crusades Change If incorrect, please navigate to the appropriate directory location. See more testimonials Submit your own. Get 10 Days Free. Showing 1 - of resources. Lesson Planet. For Teachers 6th - 10th Standards.
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For Teachers 9th - 11th. Here is a truly interactive presentation that focuses on building and understanding of the effects and failures related to the Crusades.
Learners will fill in the blank, make a Venn Diagram, and answer a series of critical-thinking Get Free Access See Review. For Students 7th - 9th. Three questions in need of well-written answers await your budding historians.
They put their reading comprehension to the test when they describe how the Crusades impacted Italian city-states, why kings like Richard the Lion-Hearted These are the questions awaiting answers on this expository writing worksheet. For Students 9th - 12th Standards. Walk your learners through the progression of the Crusades, discovering the political and religious motivations along the way, learning about such famous figures as Saladin and Richard the Lionheart, and considering the real historical The Crusades sounds like a glamorous time period in the Middle Ages full of glory—but was it?
Crusades Teacher Resources
Scholars find and review the truth of the Crusades' influence on the world through the resource. The study guides, separated individually by For Teachers 7th - 10th. Detailing the beginning of a battle that continues today, this presentation takes viewers through the various conflicts between European explorers and the Muslim cultures they stumble upon.
It details the start of the Western Crusades For Students 6th - 10th. Although limited as an engaging or interactive activity, this learning exercise on The Crusades has learners responding to 3 clear and simple prompts, each of which can easily lead into deeper research. Historians outline different From the objectives of Pope Urban II to lasting consequences, offer your young historians a broad overview of the crusades in the Middle Age with this PowerPoint presentation.
It includes brief facts and images to explain the series of For Teachers 8th - 10th. Students discover the reasons the Crusades were fought. In this Crusades lesson plan, students break into groups and research what happened, who was involved and the outcome. Students create a poster with the information and present it A graphic organizer showing the results of the Crusades in Europe is the foundation of this resource.
Middle Schoolers analyze the information on the graphic organizer then answer 4 critical-thinking questions. A great way to organize For Teachers 7th - 9th. Here is a very short presentation focused on the goals of the Crusades.Northern Crusades — The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church during the medieval period in the Eastern Mediterranean with the objective of recovering the Holy Land from Islamic rule.
The difference between these campaigns and many other Christian religious conflicts was that they were considered a penitential exercise that brought forgiveness of sins declared by the church.
Historians contest the definition of the term "crusade". Some restrict it to only armed pilgrimages to Jerusalem ; others include all Catholic military campaigns with a promise of spiritual benefit; all Catholic holy wars ; or those with a characteristic of religious fervour. Across all social strata in western Europe there was an enthusiastic popular response. Volunteers took a public vow to join the crusade.
Historians now debate the combination of their motivations, which included the prospect of mass ascension into Heaven at Jerusalem, satisfying feudal obligations, opportunities for renown, and economic and political advantage.
The crusader presence remained in the region in some form until the city of Acre fell inleading to the rapid loss of all remaining territory in the Levant.
After this, there were no further crusades to recover the Holy Land. The conflicts to which the term is applied has been extended to include other campaigns initiated, supported and sometimes directed by the Roman Catholic Church against pagansheretics or for alleged religious ends. At the time of the First Crusadeiter"journey", and peregrinatio"pilgrimage" were used for the campaign. Only at the end of the century was a specific language of crusading adopted in the form of crucesignatus —"one signed by the cross"—for a crusader.
This led to the French croisade —the way of the cross. The city and the Eastern Roman Empire are more generally known as Byzantium, the name of the older Greek city it replaced. Its remoteness from focus of Islamic power struggles enabled relative peace and prosperity for the Holy Land in Syria and Palestine. The conflict in the Iberian peninsula was the only location where Muslim-Western European contact was more than minimal.
The Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world were long standing centres of wealth, culture and military power. They viewed Western Europe as a backwater that presented little organised threat. The Empire's frontiers stretched east to Iran. It controlled Bulgaria, much of southern Italy and suppressed piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Empire's relationships with its Islamic neighbours were no more quarrelsome than its relationships with the Slavs or the Western Christians.
The Normans in Italy; to the north PechenegsSerbs and Cumans ; and Seljuk Turks in the east all competed with the Empire and the emperors recruited mercenaries —even on occasions from their enemies—to meet this challenge. The emergence of Shia Islam —the belief system that only descendants of Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Aliand daughter, Fatimahcould lawfully be caliph — had led to a split with Sunni Islam on theology, ritual and law.
As People of the Book or dhimmi they could continue in their faith on payment of a poll tax. Prisoners from the borderlands of Khurasan and Transoxania were transported to central Islamic lands, converted to Islam and given military training. Known as ghulam or mamluksit was expected that as slaves they would be more loyal to their masters. In practice it took these Turks only a few decades to progress from being guards, to commanders, governors, dynastic founders and eventually king makers.
Examples include the Tulunids in Egypt and Syria — and the Ikhshidids who followed in Egypt — The political situation in Western Asia was further changed by later waves of Turkish migration. Previously a minor ruling clan from Transoxania, they had recently converted to Islam and migrated into Iran to seek their fortune.
In the two decades following their arrival they conquered Iran, Iraq and the Near East. The Seljuks and their followers were from the Sunni Islamic tradition which brought them into conflict in Palestine and Syria with the Shi'ite Fatimids.
This difference and the governance of territory based on political preference, and competition between independent princes rather than geography, weakened power structures.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials. Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter? Grade Level. Resource Type.
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Other Arts. Other Music. Visual Arts. Vocal Music. English Language Arts. All 'English Language Arts'. Balanced Literacy. Close Reading. Creative Writing. ELA Test Prep. Informational Text. Other ELA. Reading Strategies. Short Stories. Foreign Language.The medieval "Crusade" was a holy war.2011 epiphone catalog
For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, it had to be sanctioned by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies of Christendom. Initially, only those expeditions to the Holy Land Jerusalem and associated territory were considered Crusades.
More recently, historians have also recognized campaigns against heretics, pagans, and Muslims in Europe as Crusades. For centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims, but they tolerated Christian pilgrims because they helped the economy. Then, in the s, Turks who were also Muslim conquered these holy lands and mistreated Christians before realizing how useful their goodwill and money could be.
The Turks also threatened the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Alexius asked the pope for assistance, and Urban IIseeing a way to harness the violent energy of Christian knights, made a speech calling for them to take back Jerusalem. Thousands responded, resulting in the First Crusade.
This is seen as the start of the Crusades. However, the reconquista of Spain, an important precursor to crusading activity, had been going on for centuries. Traditionally, the fall of Acre in marks the end of the Crusades, but some historians extend them towhen Napoleon expelled the Knights Hospitaller from Malta. There were as many different reasons for crusading as there were crusaders, but the single most common reason was piety.
To crusade was to go on pilgrimage, a holy journey of personal salvation. Whether that also meant giving up virtually everything and willingly facing death for God, bending to peer or family pressure, indulging bloodlust without guilt, or seeking adventure or gold or personal glory depended entirely on who was doing the crusading. People from all walks of life, from peasants and laborers to kings and queens, answered the call. Women were encouraged to give money and stay out of the way, but some went on crusade anyway.
When nobles crusaded, they often brought huge retinues, whose members may not necessarily have wanted to go along. At one time, scholars theorized that younger sons more frequently went crusading in search of estates of their own; however, crusading was an expensive business, and recent research indicates it was lords and elder sons who were more likely to crusade.
Historians have numbered eight expeditions to the Holy Land, though some lump the 7th and 8th together for a total of seven crusades. However, there was a steady stream of armies from Europe to the Holy Land, so it is nearly impossible to distinguish separate campaigns.R plotly color palette
In addition, some crusades have been named, including the Albigensian Crusade, the Baltic or Northern Crusades, the People's Crusadeand the Reconquista. Upon the success of the First Crusade, the Europeans set up a king of Jerusalem and established what is known as the Crusader States.
Also called outremer French for "across the sea"the Kingdom of Jerusalem controlled Antioch and Edessa, and it was divided into two territories since these places were so far-flung. When ambitious Venetian merchants convinced warriors of the Fourth Crusade to capture Constantinople inthe resulting government was referred to as the Latin Empire, to distinguish it from the Greek, or Byzantine, empire they had claimed.
Two important military orders were established in the early 12th century: the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar. Both were monastic orders whose members took vows of chastity and poverty, yet they were also militarily trained. Their primary purpose was to protect and aid pilgrims to the Holy Land. Both orders did very well financially, particularly the Templars, who were notoriously arrested and disbanded by Philip IV of France in The Hospitallers outlasted the Crusades and continue, in a much-altered form, to this day.
Other orders were established later, including the Teutonic Knights. Some historians -- particularly Crusades scholars -- consider the Crusades the single most important series of events in the Middle Ages.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials.
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Example: 2 category optional The category that best describes the logistic regression. Example: "This is a description of my new logistic regression" eps optional Stopping criteria for solver. If the difference between the results from the current and last iterations is less than eps, then the solver is finished.
Example: false name optional The name you want to give to the new logistic regression. Example: "my new logistic regression" normalize optional Whether to normalize feature vectors in training and predicting.
Example: "l1" replacement optional Whether sampling should be performed with or without replacement. Example: 1000 tags optional A list of strings that help classify and index your logistic regression. This will be 201 upon successful creation of the logistic regression and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the logistic regression creation has been completed without errors.
This is the date and time in which the logistic regression was created with microsecond precision. True when the logistic regression has been built in development mode. The list of fields's ids that were excluded to build the logistic regression. The list of input fields' ids used to build the logistic regression. It includes a list of coefficients and the field's dictionary describing the fields and their summaries.
See here for more details. Specifies the list of ids of the field that the logistic regression predicts. In a future version, you will be able to share logistic regressions with other co-workers or, if desired, make them publicly available.
The alternative key that gives read access to this logistic regression. This is the date and time in which the logistic regression was updated with microsecond precision.
Statistical tests to assess the quality of the model's fit to the data. This makes each field have roughly equivalent influence. Example: true category optional The category that best describes the cluster. G-means iteratively takes existing clusters and tests whether the cluster's neighborhood appears Gaussian. If it doesn't the cluster is split into two. The default is to 5, which seems to work well in most cases.
A range of 1 - 10 is acceptable.
Specifies the fields that won't be included in the cluster. Example: true name optional The name you want to give to the new cluster. Example: l1 replacement optional Whether sampling should be performed with or without replacement. A dictionary that maps cluster ids to dataset resources offering per field distribution summaries for each cluster. Each dataset resource can be serialized on-demand using the neighborhood of the cluster.
With no seed, the cluster locations can vary from run to run. With a seed, the clusters are deterministic. All the information that you need to recreate or use the cluster on your own. It includes: clusters: a list of centroids with a cluster object for each centroid.
It also contains the distance distribution of the entire dataset to that center.
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